Have you ever noticed that if a message or drawing is left on a whiteboard too long, it becomes permanent? While getting those stains off isn’t as easy as swiping a paper towel, there is a simple way to make your white board white again… Solutions have been listed in order of greatest likelihood for success. Note that there are three types of eraser boards: Everwhite, Melamine, and Porcelain. The primary difference is that one uses dry abrasion for erasure while the other requires a liquid such as alcohol. The following solutions are suggested for use with the type of board requiring a dry erase marker, not liquid.
- Keep in mind that liquids clean wet erase boards while abrasives clean dry erase boards. If you try any of the suggested methods below, first test the method on a small part of the white board before placing the substance on the entire board. This will allow you to see the effect before approaching all of the dry erase board.
Edit90% + isopropyl (rubbing alcohol)
- Use the correct rubbing alcohol for this to work. You must use 99% or 90% isopropyl (rubbing alcohol). The more common 70% does not work anywhere as well. It is well worth hunting for the stronger stuff. But the 70% will work if it’s all you have.
- Wipe the board and tray clean and free of marker dust with an eraser, followed by a soft dry cloth or a vacuum.
- Using a sponge or a soft cloth thoroughly wetted with alcohol, wipe a small section with the sponge and while still wet wipe with a clean dry cloth. Rinse the sponge in warm water and wring dry. Repeat process until the entire board is done.
- Repeat the above using a cloth thoroughly soaked with the alcohol followed by a dry cloth. (This gets the last of any remaining marker. If any stains remain use a Magic Eraser and alcohol.
- If there are pieces of tape stuck to the board, use a little mineral spirits and a cloth to remove and follow with an alcohol wipe. If there are any scratches in the board surface, not much can be done but you can try mineral spirits followed by alcohol to get most of the residue out.
- Lightly spray the surface of the board with Turtle Wax “Express Spray Shine.” (This is one of the synthetic “spray and wipe” types of waxes–other similar brands should work too.) You can put several applications over any scratches to help them clean easier.
- Buff with a soft dry cloth, wait a minute or two and buff again with another clean dry cloth, now your whiteboards should look and work like a brand new board!
EditDry cleaner fluid
- Try to avoid using any abrasive, since the surface will become microscopically rough and retain that ghost look next time after erasing and become harder to clean next time. Clean it with chemical similar to dry-cleaning fluid (such as hairspray or carpet spot remover), then condition the board for next time by rubbing a thin film of mineral oil (baby oil) over the surface.
- Use “Spot Shot” spray cleaner and a “Mr. Clean Eraser” sponge. Together they will not only take the ghost marker off, but any permanent marker accidentally used. Let the “Spot Shot” soak a while first.
EditMarker or artist’s eraser
- Get a dry erase marker (yes, you make marks to take marks away) and a dry eraser. The darker the color of marker you use, the easier the marks will disappear!
- Draw over what you want to erase (make sure you draw slowly to fill it in better).This takes a few times in each spot and so it takes a while and wears out markers.
- Erase what you’ve written over as you normally would. Surprise! It erases. This is also a great method when you’ve accidentally used permanent marker instead of dry erase!
- Use an artist’s eraser on your board. Just make sure you don’t rub so hard the finish comes off. This works very effectively.
EditKitchen cupboard remedies
- Use vinegar and water. This is the undisputed champion for removing old dry erase marker.
- Use baking soda and a small amount of water added. This works well on marks from permanent marker.
- Use coffee. Rub the grinds on the board. The permanent marker comes right off.
- Hunt around the house. Many items can clean a whiteboard. Find such items as lighter fuel, aerosol hairspray, soft scrub, coffee, sunscreen, WD40, Bon Ami powder, brass polish, diet soda, shampoo, or Simple Green on a paper towel. Use the chosen item to wipe the whiteboard.
- Use old dryer sheets on older formulations of dry erase markers. The rough surface and the softener left in the sheet are what’s responsible for removing the marks. New dryer sheets will not work.
- Use peroxide. Peroxide easily cleans clogged ink jet heads, which use a similarly permanent ink. It does a fair job of removing dry erase marker.
- Try Oxy Clean or any of the generic brands of this cleaner. These work almost as well as peroxide. This powder should be made into a paste and then rubbed in a circular motion using a soft cloth. Rinse the residue away with water.
- Use ammonia. Ammonia does a great job when used on the correct type of dry erase ink. It does not work on the dry erase board, but rather on the type that uses liquid for erasure. Use extreme caution with this chemical, which can irritate the lungs or other mucous membranes.
- Use margarine. Smear on margarine. Massage the margarine into the stain and you will notice that the margarine will slowly change to the color of the stain; indicating that it is starting to work. Massage the margarine, walk away, repeat. Wipe the margarine away with paper towel. Try your board with a dry marker. If it wipes clean; you are good to go.
- If the stain is years old, put some plastic wrap over it and wait 24 hours.
EditPersonal care products
- Use toothpaste. The toothpaste method appears to be the leading alternative way for removing dry erase marker. Use ordinary white toothpaste. It contains a very mild abrasive and is water soluble. Plus, it will leave your whiteboard minty fresh! This method will also remove permanent marker marks from most smooth, non-porous surfaces. Any brand will do.
- Use baby wipes. Regular baby wipes work well to clean marks off liquid erase white boards, not dry erase.
- Use deodorant. Deodorant works well. Just spray a bit on the desired spot, then wipe off with a tissue.
- Use hand sanitizer. Any cheap brand of hand sanitizer (Purell, Germ X, etc) works great on any dry erase surface.
- Spray a film of hairspray, let it soak in for a couple of minutes, then clean off with a good paper towel or cotton rag. You can use just plain soap and water to clean any stickiness left over, or better yet use a shampoo & conditioner combo with water to clean the hairspray off and lubricate the board for next time.
- Use muscle cream, such as Ben-Gay. This is similar to the toothpaste method, and removes permanent marker stains with only a few medium pressure wipes. Its less abrasive than toothpaste, and the alcohol acts as a better cleaning agent.
- Use neutral shoe polish. Apply neutral (no color) shoe polish to clean, and buff with a clean cloth. It works wonderfully and provides a smooth like-new surface.
- Use acetone (nail polish remover). Place acetone (a generous amount) on a paper shop towel. Wipe about a 6 square feet area. Add another generous amount of acetone (plenty) on a new paper shop towel, wipe the same 6 square feet area again. While still wet, dry the 6 square feet area with a dry paper shop towel.
- Acetone is combustible. Dispose of the paper shop towels responsibly.
- Try shaving cream. Spray it on and ensure a light coat on all marks you want to erase. Then wait a minute. Wipe off with a paper towel – vigorous little circles ought to do it!
- Use lava soap with a damp cotton swab or washcloth. This works almost as well as toothpaste but requires a second cleaning for total erasure.
- Use Cameo kitchen cleanser /Bar-keeper’s friend. Cameo, a gentle powdered cleanser intended for use on stainless steel sinks, contains a very fine abrasive, which will not mark or score surfaces. Bar-keeper’s Friend is a similar non-abrasive cleansing powder product. This may work for you if other methods aren’t successful.
- Use orange goop. A close runner up to lava soap and Cameo is Orange Goop, the hand cleaner sold at automotive stores around the country. Orange Goop contains a mild abrasive and should be used with care. Do a spot test first to make sure you don’t remove the shine.
- Use Windex. Spray on, wipe off. Wipe with a paper towel or old newspaper.
- Use Comet with bleach soft cleanser cream. This is a counter top, kitchen sink, tub and tile cleaner.
- It works perfectly on any dry erase board; it will turn out to look and even feel perfectly new.
- Consider using Murphy Pure Vegetable Oil Soap (wood floor cleaner). While it usually cleans finished wood, laminates, non-waxed floors and tiles, since it contains no oils, ammonia or bleach, using it on whiteboards also works a charm. Simply put a little on paper, rub a light coat over the marks you wish to erase and wait a minute. Then wipe off the marks with a new paper towel.
- Spray and wipe with WD-40. The lubricant will condition the board for future use.
- Use ordinary car wax. Simply use the applicator in circular motions and wipe off with a clean cloth. This will remove very stubborn stains and leaves your white board like it was the day you bought it!
EditDealing with really tough marks
If none of the suggested methods above have proven useful, try some of these approaches for the remaining stain.
- Put some rubbing alcohol on a paper towel or spray some deodorant spray on the board and rub vigorously for a couple of seconds, then wipe dry. (Commercial Dry-Erase cleaners are often just formulations that contain rubbing alcohol.) If the stains remain, then…
- Lay the board flat on a table and put a few drops of the rubbing alcohol onto the board, rubbing it around with your finger. (Use enough alcohol to leave a thin layer.) Allow it to soak for a few seconds, then wipe dry. And if all else fails, try the next step.
- Use “Mr. Clean Magic Eraser” or a white board cleaner on the marks and rub vigorously to get the stains off.
- If that still doesn’t work, try toothpaste. It’s been reported to work when 70% alcohol solutions have not.
- Another mild abrasive that may work when nothing else will is glass-ceramic cook top cleaner such as Cerama Bryte.
- Baking soda and alcohol mixed together well can also work to rub off old marks.
- Do not use too much pressure and strength when wiping off.
- When using a towel to wipe, fold and make a corner. Then wipe with the corner for more precision.
- Use rough material to wipe off old marks.
- If you have old marks that wouldn’t erase, use nail polish remover.
- Don’t try using hand sanitizing wipes to clean the board. They can eat the enamel off the surface of the board.
- Don’t scratch it with a coin as this can damage the board permanently.
- Never mix household cleansers, as they may produce toxic fumes or cause other dangerous reactions.
- Don’t try multiple cleaners like Windex, Comet, coffee pot cleaner, etc., as they can set the stain.
- Use caution when trying nail polish remover or acetone, because it may ruin the surface of your board.
- Make sure there are no possible ignition sources (electric on/off switches, toaster, smoking, etc.) around if using flammable cleaners.
- Use caution with Ammonia since this chemical is extremely irritating to the sinuses. Ammonia when mixed with other chemicals emits toxic fumes.
- When using the “Artist’s Eraser” suggestion above, do not use a kneaded eraser, as this just coats the board with a sticky substance that is harder to get off than the original marker.
EditThings You’ll Need
- Dry erase board with old marks
- Dry erase marker
- Dry erase eraser
- Cotton cosmetic rounds or cotton swabs
- Rubber glove
- Cleaning agent of your choice
EditSources and Citations
Difficult people are everywhere. Perhaps you too can be difficult. Many people go through periods where they don’t act their best. If you want to maintain a relationship with a difficult person, you will need to develop some coping and negotiation strategies.
EditApproaching a Difficult Person
- Choose your battles wisely. When butting heads with a difficult person, decide when it is worth your efforts to discuss the problem. Not every fight needs to be fought. The sooner you realize this the happier your life will become. Ideally, you and this difficult person would be able to set aside your differences and compromise. Sometimes, this is impossible.
- Ask yourself if the situation is causing you enough distress that it must be addressed.
- Consider your relationship to this person. If it’s your boss or another authority figure, you have to accept some things you don’t like (unless it’s abusive behavior). If it’s a friend or family member, think about whether choosing not to engage is enabling bad behavior or simply saving you time and grief.
- Pause for a moment. Take a deep breath before responding to collect your thoughts and calm your emotions. If your conflict is happening via email or texting, try to avoid sending digital text messages when upset. Take a bit of time to let your stress level decrease. Then you will be able to approach the person more reasonably.
- If possible, discuss your issue somewhere neutral or in a place with an activity. For example, you could talk while walking. This can limit negative face-to-face interactions.
- State your needs clearly with assertive communication. Don’t give the person the opportunity to manipulate you or twist your words. Aim to use “I” statements rather than “you” accusations. For example:
- ”I understand that you are frustrated by my lateness. I would feel the same way. Unfortunately, the subway line was down this morning and we were stuck in the station. I am very sorry for making you wait!”
- Do not say: “You are unreasonable for expecting me to be punctual when the subway system was broken down. If you really cared, you could have googled my line and checked.”
- Continue being polite. No matter the response of the other person, keep your cool. Do not resort to name-calling. Take breaths before your responses. The key is to not let yourself sink to the other person’s level. Also, the calmer you remain, the more likely the other person will notice and reflect on his or her behavior.
- Stick to the facts. Keep a short clear narrative that is not bogged down with too much detail or emotion. It is very possible you won’t be able to get the person to see your point of view and you don’t need to try to convince them. State what happened and don’t feel you need to explain yourself.
- Avoid trigger topics. For example, if you always fight about holidays with your sister-in-law, don’t discuss them! Have someone else do the mediating.
- Avoid being defensive. You might want to argue your point but with difficult people, it is best to bypass these kinds of arguments. Do not waste your time trying to prove that you are right. Instead, keep the situation as neutral as possible.
- Minimize your interactions. Although hopefully you can deal with your problem person, if not, limit your time with her. If you must interact, try to keep things short by excusing yourself from the conversation or bringing a third party into the conversation. Stay as positive as possible and make sure to calm down afterwards.
- Accept that this person will likely never become the friend, colleague, or sibling you want.
- Talk to allies. If you are not making headway with someone and need to do so, speak with a potential mediator. Perhaps your boss can help improve the situation. If your conflict is within the family, find a mutual party who can negotiate. Strive to share complaints only with people you trust.
EditChanging Your Mindset
- Realize there will always be difficult people. No matter where you live or work, you will encounter people who seem like they are out to hurt others. The key is to learn how to deal with these sorts of people. Because they are impossible to avoid, it may help you to identify some of the different types of difficult people so you can decide the best way to interact with them. They include:
- “Hostile” people tend to react violently. They can be cynical, argumentative, and have trouble being in the wrong. These people thrive in power roles or as cyber bullies.
- “Rejection-Sensitive” folk look for insults. In other words, it’s very easy to offend them. They often use textual means (email, texting) to express their dismay.
- “Neurotic” types are yet another breed. They might be anxious or pessimistic and often are very critical of others.
- “Egoists” prize their own interests first. They loathe compromise and also are hyper-sensitive to personal affronts.
- Increase your frustration tolerance. The other person’s behavior is beyond your control, but you get to decide how you will react and whether or not to engage them. One way to do this is by increasing your frustration tolerance, which involves challenging irrational beliefs that may lead you to become stressed, angry, or lose your cool.
- When interacting with someone difficult, you may be thinking, “I can’t deal with this person anymore!” Before you react based on this irrational thought, take a deep breath and question it’s validity.
- The reality is that you can deal with it. You won’t die or go insane because your mother-in-law is trying to micromanage Thanksgiving, or your boss is going on a rant. You are strong and you can take it. Your choice lies in how you take it: will you stress until your blood pressure begins to soar, or will you take some deep breaths and hand your mother-in-law some carrots to chop so she’s occupied?
- When you find yourself using words like “must,” “can’t,” “should,” “have to,” “always,” or “never,” take a moment to reassess that thought.
- Examine your own behavior. If people continually attack you, it could be that you are attracting the wrong types of people. For example, if you are overly negative, other pessimistic people might flock to you. Try to find friends who are engaged in positive behaviors.
- When you had negative experiences in the past, what was your role? What were your actions in response to the behavior. For example, let’s say your friend Liz constantly picks on you. Do you respond to her? Do you stand up for yourself?
- It’s helpful to recognize your own strengths and weaknesses. This way, when you confront difficult people in the future, you will be better equipped to handle them.
- Be aware of your perceptions of others. One of your friends might seem difficult but she could be going through a rough time. Instead of judging others’ behaviors immediately, practice empathy by stepping back and reflecting on how you would feel in his or her place. If you are sensitive to personality differences, you will be better able to hand diverse conflicts.
- Practice acceptance by taking a deep breath and looking at the person with as much compassion as possible. Say to yourself: “I see that you are suffering. I accept that you are anxious and scared, even if I don’t understand why. I accept that you are making me anxious, too.”
- When you accept that something “just is,” acknowledging and accepting that the person is difficult, you release some of the tension created by resistance or trying to fight.
- Imagine a sympathetic reason for their behavior. You may not understand why a customer just blew up at you for no apparent reason. Instead of becoming angry yourself, consider that she might suffer from severe, chronic pain, which gives her an extremely short fuse. It doesn’t matter if the reason is true or even very realistic – it helps you stay calm and not feed into the negativity.
- Never curse. Cursing will only make the other person angry and show that you’ve lost control.
- Always stay calm and if you feel the need to get angry just walk away.
EditSources and Citations
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Fractures, or broken bones, are a common injury in the United States and around the world. In fact, the average person in a developed country can expect to sustain two fractures during their lifetime. Nearly 7 million fractures are reported each year in the U.S., with wrists and hips the most affected areas. The vast majority of fractures need to be casted by a health professional to heal properly, although there are many things you can do to help the healing process along.
EditGoing to the Hospital
- See a doctor immediately. If you experience significant trauma (fall or car accident) and feel severe pain — especially in conjunction with a cracking sound or swelling — then head to the nearest hospital or walk-in clinic for medical attention. If a weight-bearing bone is hurt, like in the leg or pelvis, then don’t put any pressure on it. Instead, get assistance from someone nearby and get a ride to the hospital, or call for an ambulance to come pick you up.
- Common signs and symptoms of a broken bone include: intense pain, a visibly deformed or misshapen bone or joint, nausea, limited mobility, numbness or tingling, swelling and bruising.
- X-rays, bone scans, MRI, and CT scan are tools that doctors use to help diagnose broken bones and their severity — small stress fractures may not show up on x-ray until the related swelling abates (up to a week or so). X-rays are most commonly used for the diagnosis of traumatic fractures.
- If your broken bone is considered complicated — there’s multiple fragments, the skin is penetrated by the bone and/or the pieces are grossly misaligned — then surgery will likely be necessary.
- Get a cast or support. Before a broken bone can be casted, sometimes it must be put back together and straightened to its original shape. In many cases, the doctor will use a simple technique called “reduction”, which involves pulling on the ends of the bone (creating traction) and manually fitting the pieces together. With more complicated fractures, surgery is required and often involves the use of metal rods, pins or other devices for structural support.
- Cast immobilization with a plaster or fiberglass cast is the most common treatment for a broken bone. Most broken bones heal quicker when properly repositioned, compressed and immobilized. Usually the doctor will initially put on a splint, which is like a partial cast typically made of fiberglass. A full cast will usually be put on in 3-7 days after most of the swelling is improved.
- Casts are made of a soft padding and a hard covering (such as plaster of Paris or more commonly, fiberglass). They usually need to stay on for between 4-12 weeks, depending on which bone is broken and how badly.
- Alternatively, a functional cast (such as a plastic boot) or a supportive brace may be used instead of a hard cast — it depends on the type of fracture and its location.
- Take medications. Over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, naproxen or aspirin can be short-term solutions to help you deal with pain or inflammation related to your broken bone. Keep in mind that these medications can be hard on your stomach, kidneys and liver, so it’s best not to use them for more than 2 weeks at a stretch.
- Kids under the age of 18 should never take aspirin, as it’s associated with Reye’s syndrome.
- Alternatively, you can try over-the-counter pain killers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), but don’t take them concurrently with NSAIDS without talking to your doctor.
- Your doctor may give you a prescription for more powerful medications while at the hospital if your pain is severe.
EditManaging a Fracture at Home
- Rest your injury and ice it. Once you’re discharged, you’ll be told to elevate your broken bone and ice the area, even with the cast or splint on, in order to help decrease swelling and inflammation. Depending on your job and which bone is broken, you’ll likely have to take some time off to recuperate. You might also need crutches or a cane for support.
- Total bed rest is not a good idea for most stabilized fractures because some movement (even in surrounding joints) is needed to stimulate blood flow and healing.
- Ice should be applied for 15-20 minutes every 2-3 hours for a couple of days, then reduce the frequency as the pain and swelling subside — never apply ice directly to your skin, wrap it in a thin towel first.
- Put some weight on it. In addition to some light movements in the joints surrounding your broken bone, putting some weight on it after a week or so can be beneficial — especially for weight-bearing bones of the legs and pelvis. Make sure your doctor lets you know when to begin weight bearing. Lack of activity and complete immobilization, in proportion with the time spent healing, will induce loss of bone mineral, which is counterproductive for a broken bone trying to regain its strength. Some movement and weight bearing seems to attract more minerals to the bones, which makes them stronger and less apt to break in the future.
- There are three stages to bone healing: reactive stage (a blood clot forms between the two ends of the fracture), repair stage (specialized cells begin to form a callus, which spans the fracture), and remodeling phase (bone is created and the injury is slowly resculpted into its original shape).
- Broken bones take several weeks to several months to heal, depending on the severity and your overall health. However, the pain usually disappears before the fracture is stable enough to cope with the demands of normal activity.
- Take proper care of your cast. Don’t get your plaster or fiberglass cast wet, as it will weaken and no longer properly support your broken bone. If need be, use a plastic bag to cover the cast when you bathe or shower. If you’re wearing a plastic compression boot (commonly recommended for stress fractures of the foot), make sure you keep it pressurized properly.
- If your cast makes your skin itch, don’t poke anything underneath it, as a sore could form and then develop into an infection. See your doctor if your cast becomes wet, cracked, or has a bad odor or drainage around it.
- Exercise the joints that aren’t covered by the cast (elbow, knee, fingers, toes) to promote better circulation. Blood caries oxygen and nutrients to tissues.
- Consume the necessary nutrients. Your bones, like any other tissue in your body, need all the appropriate nutrients in order to heal properly. Eating a balanced diet rich in minerals and vitamins is proven to help heal broken bones  Focus on eating fresh produce, whole grains, leans meats and drinking plenty of purified water and milk.
- Minerals such as calcium and magnesium are important for bone strength. Rich food sources include: dairy products, tofu, beans, broccoli, nuts and seeds, sardines, salmon.
- Avoid consuming things that may hamper your healing, such as alcohol, soda pop, fast food and food with lots of refined sugar.
- Consider taking supplements. Although it’s best to obtain essential nutrients from a well-balanced diet, supplementing with key bone-healing minerals and vitamins will ensure you meet your higher requirements without increasing your caloric intake. More calories combined with less activity usually leads to weight gain, which is not a healthy outcome after your bone heals.
- Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium are the primary minerals found in bones — so find a supplement that contains all three. For example, adults need between 1,000 – 1,200 mg of calcium daily (depending on age and gender), but you may need a little more due to your broken bone — consult with your doctor or nutritionist.
- Important trace minerals to consider include: zinc, iron, boron, copper and silicon.
- Important vitamins to consider include: vitamins D and K. Vitamin D is crucial for mineral absorption in the gut — your skin produces it for free in response to strong summer sunshine. Vitamin K binds calcium to bones and stimulates collagen formation, which aids healing.
- Seek out physiotherapy. Once your cast is removed, you may notice that the muscles surrounding your broken bone look shriveled and weak. If that’s the case, then you need to consider some form of rehabilitation. A physical therapist can show you specific and tailored stretches, mobilizations and strengthening exercises for your injured area. Physiotherapy is usually required 2-3x per week for 4-8 weeks to positively impact an area that’s experienced a broken bone. Often the physical therapist can give you exercises to do at home, and you may not need to return many times.
- If need be, a physical therapist can stimulate, contract and strengthen your weak muscles with electrotherapy, such as electronic muscle stimulation.
- Even after your cast or brace is removed, you may need to limit your activities until the bone is solid enough for normal activity.
- See a chiropractor or osteopath. Chiropractors and osteopaths are musculoskeletal specialists who focus on establishing normal motion and function within joints, bones and muscles. Manual joint manipulation, also called an adjustment, can be used to unjam or reposition joints that are misaligned or stiff due to the trauma that caused your broken bone. Healthy joints allow bones to move and heal properly.
- You can often hear a “popping” sound with an adjustment, which is not at all related to the sounds related to a broken bone.
- Although a single adjustment can sometimes completely restore a joint to full mobility, more than likely it will take 3-5 treatments to notice significant results.
- Try acupuncture. Acupuncture involves sticking thin needles into specific energy points within the skin / muscle in efforts to reduce pain and inflammation (helpful for the acute phase of a broken bone) and to potentially stimulate healing. Acupuncture is not commonly recommended for healing broken bones, and should only be considered as a secondary option, but anecdotal reports suggest it can stimulate healing for many different types of musculoskeletal injuries. It’s worth a try if your budget allows for it.
- Based on the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture reduces pain and inflammation by releasing a variety of substances including endorphins and serotonin.
- It’s also claimed that acupuncture stimulates the flow of energy, referred to as chi, which may be the key to stimulating healing.
- Acupuncture is practiced by a variety of health professionals including some physicians, chiropractors, naturopaths, physical therapists and massage therapists — whoever you choose should be certified by NCCAOM.
- Always keep follow-up appointments with your doctor to make sure your bones are healing properly, and always let your doctor know if you are worried about anything during the healing process.
- Don’t smoke, as it’s proven that smokers have more difficulty healing broken bones.
- Osteoporosis (brittle bones) greatly increases the risk of broken bones in the limbs, pelvis and spine.
- Reduce repetitive motions because it can fatigue muscles and place more stress on bone, resulting in stress fractures.
Provide First Aid for a Broken Bone
Apply a Cast to a Broken Arm
Prevent Breaking Bones
Treat a Foot Fracture
Deal With a Broken Bone Emergency
EditSources and Citations
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If you need to snap a picture of a funny chat conversation, show an expert an error message on your system, create instructions for performing a task, or even contribute to a wikiHow article, a screenshot is the ideal way to show someone exactly what is on your computer screen. To take a screenshot in Mac OS X, you can press Command + Shift + 4 and drag a box around the screen portion you wish to capture, or press Command + Shift + 3 to capture an image of your entire screen. These are the two most basic options, but there are also a variety of other simple ways to alter the screenshot image as you take or save it based on your exact needs.
EditScreenshot a Portion of Your Screen
- Press Command + Shift + 4. Your cursor will turn into a small cross-hair reticle.
- Click and drag your cursor to highlight the area you’d like to take a picture of. A grayed rectangle should appear where you drag your cursor. If you need to adjust your windows at all, press Escape to return to a regular cursor without taking a picture.
- Let go of the mouse. You should hear a brief camera shutter noise if your computer’s sound is turned on. That signals that your screenshot has been taken.
- Find your screenshot on your desktop. It will be saved as a .png file named “screenshot” labeled with the date and time.
- Earlier versions of OS X will save it as “Picture #”—for example, if it’s the 5th screenshot on your desktop it will be labeled as “Picture 5”.
- Use the screenshot. Once you have taken your screenshots, they are now ready to be used as needed. You can attach them to an email, upload them to the Web, or even drag them straight into an application such as a word processor.
EditScreenshot the Entire Screen
- Make sure your screen displays exactly what you want to show in your screenshot image. Ensure all the relevant windows are visible.
- Press Command + Shift + 3. If your sound is on, your computer should make a brief camera shutter noise.
- Find your screenshot on your desktop. It will be saved as “screenshot” labeled with the date and time.
- Earlier versions of OS X will save it as “Picture #”—for example, if it’s the 5th screenshot on your desktop it will be labeled “Picture 5”.
EditScreenshot an Open Window
- Press Command+Shift+4 then hit the Space bar. The cross-hair will turn into a small camera. You can press Spacebar again to switch back to the reticle.
- Move your cursor over the window you want to capture. The camera will highlight different windows blue as it moves over them. You can use keyboard commands such as Command+Tab to shift through your windows while still in this mode.
- Click on the window. The picture of the window you selected will be saved to the desktop by default just like the other screenshot methods.
EditSave a Screenshot to the Clipboard
- Press Command + Control + Shift + 3. This method works exactly like the one above, except the screenshot does not immediately create a file. Instead, the image is saved to the clipboard, the same temporary storage area where your computer remembers the text that you have copied.
- You can also take a portion screenshot with this method using Command + Control + Shift + 4 and dragging your reticle over the appropriate part of your screen, exactly as the portion screenshot method.
- Use Command + V or Edit > Paste to paste your image. Your screenshot image can be pasted straight into any compatible application, such as a Word document, an image editing program, and many email services.
EditUse the Grab Utility Tool
- Go to Applications > Utilities > Grab. This opens the Grab application. You will see the menus shown in the upper left of your screen, but no windows will open.
- Click the Capture menu and choose between the four different options.
- To take a picture of your entire screen, click on Screen (or just use the keyboard command Apple Key + Z). A window will pop up telling you where to click and letting you know that the window will not appear in the shot.
- To take a picture of a portion of your screen, click on Selection. A window will pop up instructing you to drag your mouse over the portion of your screen you’d like to capture.
- To take a picture of a specific window, select Window. Then, click on the window you’d like to take a picture of.
- When the new window opens, choose Save. You can also choose Save As to give it a different name and/or move it to a more appropriate location, but note that it can only be saved as a .tiff file. Note that the file is not automatically saved.
- Files from the screen-capture tool are saved to the desktop as PNG files by default. This is not the best method and fills your desktop if not managed. The easiest way to solve this is to make a screenshot folder, which is outlined in Altering the Default Location of the Saved Files.
- An alternative but more long-winded method of taking screenshots is available via Mac OS X Lion’s Preview application. The screenshot options appear on the “File” menu and match those available via the keyboard shortcuts.
- Advanced users with knowledge of the Mac OS X Lion Terminal application can also use the “screen-capture” command to take a screenshot from the command line.
- An alternative to saving a Grab file as a TIFF formatted file is to copy it and open Preview. Then in Preview, do File – New from Clipboard, and the image will open, which can then be exported as a jpg or png file to a folder of your choice. And if you do Select All and copy the image, you may directly import it via Paste or Paste Picture with the Shift Key depressed into Microsoft Excel for example.
- It is possible to alter the shortcut used for taking screenshots by going into System Preferences, then to the Keyboard area, and clicking on the Screenshot section of Shortcuts. By clicking on the type of screenshot you want to change the shortcut for, you can press a combination of keys to create a new shortcut.
- Posting screenshots that include copyrighted information could have legal implications, so be careful that you have the right to capture any of the information visible on your screen.
- When taking screenshots to pass on to other people, or to publish on the Internet, ensure no personal or confidential information is captured within the image.
Red wine is a party and dinner staple, found at almost any special occasion or relaxing night in. Although considered one of the most loved beverages, this delicacy produces the most dreaded stain. There is much discrepancy in the realm of red wine stain removal. Some swear by certain methods while others call the same remedy a sham. This article will help to sort out your best option for stain removal. Quickly assess your household supplies and follow the instructions below, before it’s too late!
EditMethod 1 of 3: Removing Wet Stains
- Work as quickly as possible! Run as fast as you can to whichever solution you have near by. Search the bullet points below for a product currently available to you. Further instructions for each product will be listed in the subsequent steps.
- Table Salt (Best quick option!)
- Club Soda
- Soap and Hydrogen Peroxide
- Kitty Litter
- Hot Water
- Sprinkle a thick layer of salt over the stained area. Make sure to completely cover the stain and let sit for an hour. The salt will absorb the wine and can be easily brushed off afterwards.
- Salt is the preferred stain removal method, but works best when applied within two minutes of spillage. If the wine has not yet completely soaked into the fabric, the salt crystals should easily absorb the red wine. 
- As most natural fabrics, such as cotton, denim and linen, absorb faster than synthetic materials, stains on natural fabrics should be tended to with more haste than synthetic. 
- Pour club soda over the stain. Let the liquid bubble up. Continue pouring the soda over the stained area until the color fades away. Once the stain is removed, let the fabric dry. Use paper towels to clean up any spilt or excess club soda.
- There is much debate over the club soda remedy, some arguing tap water would work just as well. However, the general consensus believes the soda’s carbonation to have stain lifting agents. 
- Club soda also has a lower pH than regular water. As weak acids (those with low pH values) are known to help in stain removal, this trait could be a contributing factor.
- Be advised not to use any flavored club soda when removing stains, even those clear in color. Dyes as well as sugars and additional ingredients can contribute more to the preexisting stain. 
- Use club soda and salt together. Quickly cover the stain with a thick layer of salt and pour the club soda on top. Let the stain sit for an hour before brushing off all salt into the garbage. Blot up any excess liquid.
- Both agents can work on their own, but using the two together may double your chances of completely clearing the stain. The salt absorbs as much wine as it can, while the club soda will lift out the stain as you blot.
- Pour milk heftily over the stain. Let it soak into the fabric, blotting the stain with a tea towel or paper towel. Do not rub, as this will settle the stain into the fabric. The stain should be gone in an hour or less. Wash as usual to remove excess liquid and odor.
- Another option is to completely soak the fabric in a bowl or bucket of milk for an hour or so, depending on the size of the stain. If the stained fabric is easily movable and the stain is rather large, this is a more thorough and efficient method.
- Milk works similarly to club soda, soaking up the stain. However, milk’s thick white consistency can essentially override the red color.
- Milk is one of the least popular methods in red wine stain removal, though some still prefer it to the salt and club soda method.
- Combine soap and hydrogen peroxide. Mix equal parts into a container. Pour on, sponge over or spray the solution generously onto the stain. Blot with a paper towel.
- General opinion deems Dawn the best soap to react with hydrogen peroxide and get the job done. 
- If available, using a spray bottle is suggested. The resulting bubbles should help lift the stain out of the fabric, much like the carbonation in club soda.
- If your stain has only soaked through one layer of a two-sided piece of clothing, be sure to place a towel between both sides. This will prevent any leakage as you spray and blot.
- Use kitty litter. Sprinkle a 1/2 inch (1.25 cm) layer over the entire stain. Press down the kitty litter with your hands softly to absorb the wine. Once the stain is removed, vacuum the kitty litter off the fabric.
- Kitty litter contains highly absorbent chemicals that will quickly soak up liquid, much like salt, though slightly more powerful.
- Timing is especially crucial with kitty litter, as it was with salt. Work quickly — preferably within two minutes of spillage.
- Vacuuming is the easiest method of kitty litter removal as the litter can clog drains or add unwanted odors to standing trash cans.
- Use boiling water as a last resort. Once you have a heavy boil going, stretch the stained fabric over a pan in the sink. Stand on a chair and pour the boiling water onto the fabric from 3-4 feet (.9-1.2 meters) above. Pour the water generously over the stained area until it is removed. Dry the fabric of excess water with paper towels. 
- Though hot water sets in some stains, it has proven successful with red wine stains because of its fruit based ingredients.
- Avoid using water on wool or silk as water weakens these fabrics.
EditMethod 2 of 3: Removing Dry Stains
- Search your house for an appropriate stain remover. Any on the following list should work. Further instructions for each product will follow.
- Shaving Cream
- White Wine and Baking Soda
- Spray shaving cream onto the entire stain. Flatten the shaving cream into the fabric with the back of a spoon before washing the fabric as usual. 
- Shaving cream’s thick, foamy texture combined with its cleansing components work wonders on tough stains — saturating and lifting the stain from the fabric. 
- Pour vodka over the entire stain. Blot the stain with a cloth and continue pouring. Allow the vodka to completely soak in and watch the stain fade. Wash as usual.
- Red wine contains anthocyanins, or color pigments, which can be dissolved by alcohol. Therefore vodka, gin, or any clear alcohol with a higher proof than red wine can remove the stain. 
- Use white wine and baking soda together. First soak the stain with white wine. Some believe white wine dilutes the color while preventing the stain from setting in (warning to follow in the bullets below).
- Make a baking soda paste using a 3-1 ratio of baking soda to water. Mix together until a paste is formed. 
- Spread a thick layer of baking soda paste over the stain and let sit for an hour. Periodically spray with water to keep the area moist, preventing the stain from settling into the fabric. After the stain is removed, wash as usual.
- White wine is one of the most common discrepancies in red wine stain removal. Though many swear it dilutes the stain’s color, others say mixing fire with fire only aggravates the stain. Tap water can be used as a replacement if you are weary of this particular option.
EditMethod 3 of 3: Removing Stains with Cleaning Products
- Use caution with powerful cleaning products. Check the label for the fabric’s components, cleaning instructions and warnings.
- Silk and wool are especially fragile fabrics, weakened by water and not able to withstand chlorine bleach. Alternatively, linen and synthetic materials tend to be more durable, while cotton ranges in the middle. 
- If there are no warnings on the label, search online to make sure your fabric can withstand the cleaning product of your choice.
- Dry-clean only fabrics should be taken to the cleaners as soon as possible, preferably within the first or second day after spillage. Do not attempt to wash on your own.
- Choose a fabric-safe cleaning product.
- Products such as OxiClean, Resolve and Wine Away have proven most successful in removing stains with out harming fabric. 
- Cleaning products work almost identically to the household remedies mentioned earlier, using absorption and chemicals to lift out stains. However, cleaning products may prove more reliable as they have been specifically tested to remove stains in a efficient and consistent manner.
- Cleaning products contain bleach. Avoid using any bleach products on wool, silk, mohair, leather, and spandex. 
- Sponge the fabric with hot water. Blot the stain and lift out as much excess liquid as possible before applying the product to the stain.
- Blotting makes your life easier. It absorbs as much of the stain as possible. The cleaning agent is then able to save its powers for the tougher stains that have already begun to set in.
- Apply product as directed. OxiClean and Resolve can come in different forms, such as detergent, spray and liquid formulas. For the best results, follow the label’s instructions.
- Wine Away is packaged in spray bottles and should be sprayed directly onto the stain. Let sit for fifteen minutes before washing as usual.
- Work as quickly as possible. The longer the stain sits, the harder it is to remove.
- Always blot, never rub. Rubbing will work the wine deeper into the fibers, making the stain more likely to set.
- Hydrogen peroxide is a bleaching agent, so you may not want to use it on colored fabrics.
- Don’t apply heat (dryer, iron) to the stained area until the stain is gone.
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If you have a busy schedule, you might like to spend less time sleeping. While long-term sleep deprivation is a bad idea, there are steps you can take to sleep less for a short period. Take time to prepare your mind and body, gradually cut back on sleep, and return to a normal schedule if you notice any effects on your health or well being.
EditPreparing Your Mind and Body
- Exercise. If you expect to function without sleep you’ll have to build up your body’s overall strength. Exercising three or four times a week can build your overall strength and stamina, resulting in you needing less sleep.
- Focus on aerobics, like running or jogging, as well as mild weight training, such as lifting weights, doing push or sit ups, and Pilates.
- Exercise in the afternoon is ideal as your overall sleep quality at night improves. This means you get higher quality sleep overall, which may lead to you needing less sleep.
- Cut out certain substances. Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine all mess with your sleep schedule. If you want to function on less sleep you need to take steps to assure your sleep is high quality.
- Alcohol can help you fall asleep faster. However, once you do fall asleep the sleep you have is of a lesser quality. You’ll end up needing to sleep more. Ditch alcohol, only drinking on occasion and in moderation.
- Caffeine stays in the body for up to six hours after you drink it. Drinking caffeine in the late afternoon can affect your ability to sleep at night. It’s best to stick to coffee in the mornings without going overboard. One or two 8 ounce cups a day should be enough.
- Nicotine, in addition to leading to many health problems, is a stimulant. Smoking cigarettes throughout the day can lead to trouble sleeping at night. Not to mention tobacco weakens your body and immune system, meaning you’ll need more sleep for strength. If you want to go on less sleep, take steps to quit smoking.
- Develop a sleep routine. Work on improving your sleep schedule before trying to cut back on sleep. Take measures to assure you fall asleep quickly and wake up feeling refreshed.
- Go to bed and wake up at roughly the same time every night. Your body has a natural circadian rhythm that adjusts to a regular sleep/wake cycle. If you keep your bedtime and waking time the same each day, you’ll feel tired naturally at night and wake up refreshed in the morning.
- Avoid electronic screens in the hours leading up to bedtime. The blue light that comes from smartphones and laptops has a stimulating effect on the body that makes nodding off difficult.
- Have some kind of bedtime ritual. If your body associates a certain activity with bedtime, you’ll naturally feel tired in response to that activity. Pick something relaxing to do, like reading a book or doing a crossword puzzle.
- Keep your bedroom environment sleep friendly. Remember, to sleep less you need to make sure your sleep is of as high quality as possible. To do so, make sure your bedroom is sleep friendly.
- Check your mattress and pillows. They should be firm and supportive and not result in you feeling sore. Pillows and bedding should be free of any allergens, that could cause irritation and keep you up at night.
- Keep your room cool. The ideal sleeping temperature is between 60 and 67°F (15.5 to 19.4°C).
- If you live in a noisy building or area, consider investing in a white noise machine to block out unwanted sound.
EditGradually Scaling Back
- Reduce the number of hours you sleep gradually. If you try to go from sleeping nine hours a night to sleeping six, it’s going to backfire. Work on gradually delaying your bedtime or getting up earlier.
- For the first week, go to sleep 20 minutes later or get up 20 minutes earlier than usual. For the second week, add another 20 minutes. For the third week, move your bedtime or wake time back or forward by an hour.
- Continue cutting back by 20 minute intervals each week.
- Be patient. You’ll likely experience fatigue for the first few weeks. It will take your body time to adjust to less sleep. If fatigue is getting to you, change your diet by adding healthier, energy-stimulating foods and exercising more to rev up the quality of your sleep.
- Aim for six hours of sleep each night. Six hours of sleep a night should be your goal. You can still function relatively well, if you maintain the quality of that sleep. Anything less than this could pose major health risks.
EditKnowing the Risks
- Do not sleep less than five and a half hours a night. The absolute least amount you can sleep is five and a half hours a night. Sleep studies that monitored the effects of sleep deprivation on the brain report subjects who get less sleep than this report severe fatigue and reduced ability to function in day-to-day life.
- Watch for ill health effects. Sleep deprivation can be dangerous. If you experience any of the following, you may want to consider returning to your regular sleep schedule:
- Increased hunger
- Changes in weight
- Loss of short term memory
- Impulsive behaviors
- Poor motor skills
- Changes in skin
- Blurred vision
- Understand sleeping less is difficult to maintain long-term. While you can cut back on sleep for short periods of time, sleeping less than eight hours a night is not recommended long-term. Eventually, your functioning will slip and you’ll need to catch up on sleep.
- How much sleep you need varies based on lifestyle. However, most people need at least eight hours of sleep a night. Regularly getting less than this is bad for your concentration.
- If you continuously run on six hours a night, you’ll create what’s called a sleep debt. Your body will crave more sleep than you’re providing. Eventually, you’ll end up crashing. If you’re trying to run on little sleep, make sure to only do so for a few weeks at a time before returning to eight hours a night.
- Do not attempt to operate a motor vehicle while running on less sleep. Falling asleep at the wheel can lead to potentially fatal car accidents.
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Bookkeeping, like accounting, is one of the necessary evils of running a business. Despite what many may think, those two terms refer to different processes. Bookkeeping, as it will be discussed here, refers to simply collecting records of expenses and revenues, and then posting those transactions to a general ledger. Accounting is the process that follows bookkeeping, and involves converting the information in the ledger into useful business metrics and reports. Luckily, bookkeeping is the simpler of the two, and can be learned by following the simple steps below.
EditEstablishing a System
- Decide what type of system to use. The most important part of bookkeeping is being consistent. You don’t want to lose receipts, forget to record transactions, or record the same transaction twice, as this could cause a misrepresentation of your business’s financial health. The simplest way to avoid these errors in by establishing a consistent system for both recording transactions in journals and entering them into the ledger.
- This system can be as complicated as a wired-in cash register that feeds into accounting software or as simple as a box full of receipts and notes. This will depend on the amount of transactions your company does on a daily or weekly basis.
- Use accounting software. The simplest way to ensure that your transactions are recorded reliably is to invest in an accounting program like QuickBooks, FreshBooks, or Expensify. These will take a lot of the guesswork out of recording different types of transactions and present your information clearly. Many of these programs are available for free or on as a free trial for a limited time.
- Use a spreadsheet. For a more manual system, try setting up a spreadsheet to record transactions. This can be done either manually, with physical transaction journals, or on the computer with a spreadsheet program. The formatting of these journals is up to you, but it should include the following, at minimum:
- Supplier’s/buyer’s name
- Account number
- Expense/revenue type (e.g. office supplies, raw materials)
- Date the invoice was received/created
- Amount owed/paid
- Be consistent. For any system you use, be sure to enter your transaction data on a regular basis and in the same way each time. This is to be sure that transactions are not overlooked and that you have the most up to date picture of your business’s financial health. In addition, it is a good idea to establish a regular schedule for transferring information from the journals to the ledger, perhaps on a weekly or monthly basis.
EditRecording Transactions Properly
- Use the same accounting method for all entries. The two types of accounting are the cash and accrual accounting methods. In essence, the cash method records transactions when actual cash changes hands, like when a customer pays for an item or when you pay for an expense. The accrual method, however, accounts for transactions when that transaction occurs, for example when expenses are incurred or when a customers buys an item (but not necessarily when money changes hands for the transaction). Which method you choose will depend on your own goals and business strategies.
- Compare the two accounting methods. The cash method of accounting is more commonly used in small businesses because it gives an accurate representation of the cash balance of the company. As the business grows, however, it may become less important to know the exact cash balance of the company and focus instead on its current health. This is where the accrual method comes in. By tracking expenses when they occur and revenues when they are earned, rather than paid for, the accrual method negates the effects of payment delays in determining the financial health of the company.
- Decide on which method to use. Legally, a company may choose either accounting method as long that company has less than $5 million in revenue each year or, if it sells products to the public, has less than $1 million in gross receipts (all revenues). Any company with revenues over those levels is required, by law, to use the accrual method.
- Use double-entry bookkeeping. Many small businesses make the mistake of using single-entry bookkeeping. That is, they only record transactions as movements of money to or from a single account. However, every business transaction takes place in at least two accounts, and must be recorded as such for accuracy. This is called double-entry bookkeeping. This allows you to see exactly where your money is coming from and where it’s going.
- For example, a purchase of inventory using cash would be recorded as an increase in inventory and a decrease in the cash account. Alternately, a sale of that inventory to a customer paying in credit would be recorded as a decrease in inventory and an increase in accounts receivable.
- In the world of accounting, these would be recorded using the official terms, as debits and credits to various accounts.As a bookkeeper, though, it is most important that you use a consistent system that makes sense to you.
- Record transactions in journals. At first, transactions need only be entered into daily or weekly journals, depending on your transaction volume. These entries will include information on the transaction, including the buyer/seller, amount, date, and type of transaction. Later, this information will be categorized and added to the ledger. However, for now it is only important to record the information for later use. Entries should be made according the company’s chosen accounting method (cash or accrual).
- The introduction of accounting software has made the two-step process of journals and ledgers almost obsolete. The software will automatically update the ledger, making the process one of simply inputting transactions as they occur. However, some businesses still choose to use the journal-ledger method.
EditPosting Transactions to a Ledger
- Separate transactions into accounts. The best way to track your transactions is to separate them into different accounts within the ledger. By starting out with set accounts and adding or subtracting from them with each transaction, you gain a clearer picture of where money is coming in and going. These accounts can be as generic as sales or as specific certain types of inventory. For example, it may be reasonable for an auto garage to reserve an entire account for oil inventory. Accounts will vary between businesses, but at minimum should cover the following:
- Accounts Receivable (money due from customers paying on credit).
- Accounts Payable (money you owe to suppliers).
- Sales (the revenue you make from primary operations).
- Cost of sales (supplies you buy for production or your business).
- Payroll Expenses (wages).
- Owners’ Equity (the amount that owners have put into the business).
- Retained Earnings (profits reinvested in the company).
- Post transactions regularly. How often you post transaction to the ledger from the journals will depend on your transaction volume. It can be daily, weekly, or even monthly. However, this should be done consistently to ensure that you are not suddenly overwhelmed with work at the end of an accounting period. Again, accounting software will help you stay up-to-date on these processes.
- Analyze your ledger accounts. Ledger accounts are mainly useful for quantifying the financial health of the company. While true financial reports are best left to professional accountants, anyone can compare ledger accounts to create simple comparisons or reports. For example, compare sales to expenses to get a general idea of how your company has fared recently. Obviously, if sales are higher than expenses, you are making a profit. For more complex reports, turn to an accountant or accounting program.
- Be sure to pay your suppliers a few days in advance of the payment deadline, whether it is 30 days or a longer time period. This will give you some leeway if you forget to pay on that day and put you on good terms with suppliers.
- If bookkeeping begins taking up too much of your time as your business grows, it may be a good idea to hire help. Hiring an educated accountant will allow you to gain a more complete and accurate picture of your business’s financial health.
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Registered nurses provide medical care, education, and emotional support to patients. Employment for nurses is expected to increase by 19% from 2010 to 2022, which is a faster growth rate than most other occupations. This is a rewarding field that will make a real difference in your community and has a wide array of options for advancement.
- Understand the profession. According to the American Nurses Association, nursing today is designed for the protection, promotion and optimization of health and the prevention of illness and injury. Nurses are advocates in the care of individuals, families and communities. The standardized education of today’s registered nurses, in contrast to the past, reflects the high expectations communities and physicians have on the men and women who fill these roles. In recent years, the employment of nurses has grown and will continue to grow in part because of the aging of the baby boomer population and the associated growing rate of chronic conditions like diabetes.
- The nursing profession is not just for women; there are over a hundred thousand registered male nurses working in the US.
- People with chronic diseases, such as heart and lung disease, are living longer than ever, which equates to sicker patients living longer and requiring skilled medical services.
- Determine if the roles and responsibilities of nursing interest you. The foundation of all nursing practice is based in human anatomy and physiology. The chief mission of the nursing field is to protect, promote and optimize health. Key responsibilities for nurses include (but are not limited to):
- Triaging and assessing injury levels in emergency situations.
- Performing physical examinations and taking medical and family histories.
- Providing counseling and education about health promotion and injury protection.
- Administering medication and providing wound care.
- Coordinating care and collaborating with other professionals including doctors, therapists and dietitians.
- Directing and supervising care and providing education to patients and family, which enables patients to be discharged sooner.
- Know the skills and qualities involved in nursing. Beyond having a breadth of knowledge in medicine (and being someone who does not get squeamish easily!), a nurse must also be skilled in other areas. In this sense, nursing is like any other profession in that there are specific individual qualities that make the job easier and a more natural fit for some people. It’s important to determine whether your personality and abilities can accommodate the various responsibilities and tasks that come with being a nurse. Key qualities include:
- Interpersonal and communication skills: Being a nurse requires working with people every day—doctors, other nurses, technicians, patients, caregivers, and others. To communicate information clearly and do their jobs effectively, nurses need strong interpersonal skills, patience, and the ability to break down complex information into something that is accessible for ordinary people (i.e., non-specialists).
- Compassion: Caring and empathy are valuable when taking care of individuals who are sick or injured. Remember that patients may be scared or in pain and need to be comforted, reassured, and motivated to fight through their illnesses.
- Critical thinking: Registered nurses must be able to assess changes in the health status of their patients and make a quick referrals.
- Detail-oriented and organized: Nurses often work with multiple patients and healthcare professional at a time and so they need to be able to keep track of what has been done and what needs to be done. In addition, attention to detail is key; medication needs to be given on time and emergency protocols must be followed to the letter.
- Stamina: Nurses are often required to perform physical tasks, such as lifting patients, and also work long shifts of between eight and 12 hours, which may include night shifts.
EditObtaining the Correct Education and Credentials
- Get a high school diploma. Admission into a school of nursing requires a high school diploma or, alternately, passing the General Education Development (GED) test. If you want to be a nurse, pay attention to your performance, skill, and interest in courses like biology, physiology, and chemistry throughout high school. The knowledge from these courses will be important in your post-secondary education.
- A good foundational knowledge and understanding of how the human body works is necessary in the field of nursing and begins already in high school.
- Don’t get discouraged if these subjects don’t come easily to you. Consider hiring a private tutor to help you in your math and science courses in order to improve and develop effective study and learning strategies.
- Undertake post-secondary education in nursing. There are three ways to become a registered nurse. Whatever path you choose, the coursework involved will include physiology, biology, chemistry, nutrition, and anatomy.
- Bachelor’s degree in nursing (BSN). This level of education is like a bachelor’s program in all other fields. It is awarded by a college or university and usually takes four years to complete. Classes will include community health, pharmacology, health assessment, microbiology, chemistry, human development and clinical practice. In addition, bachelor’s programs usually include more training in social sciences than other nursing programs. You may take courses in sociology, communications, leadership, and critical thinking.
- Associate’s degree in nursing (ADN). This is the most common way to obtain a registered nursing license and involves a two-year program at a community or junior college. Many students transition to BSN programs after having completed an ADN and holding an entry-level nursing position. In these cases, nurses are able get further education using an employer’s tuition assistance program; they’re also able to work and earn an income while getting the next level of education.
- Diploma from an accredited nursing program. You can also be eligible for licensure by completing a vocational nursing program. These accredited programs are often associated with a hospital and vary in length, though they are typically up to three years long. In this program, classroom learning, clinical practice, and on-the-job training are combined. This education path is on the decline since hospitals have placed a limit on the number of diploma graduates they can hire due to recommendations by the National Advisory Council on Nursing Education.
- Make sure your school is accredited. The national accreditation agency for nursing schools is the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education. This agency ensures the quality and integrity of bachelor, graduate, and residency programs in nursing. Accreditation is voluntary but ensures that colleges and schools providing nursing education are operating at the same professional level and educating future nurses in a manner which ensures that they can provide effective and standardized care.
- Get licensed. Registered nurses must have a nursing license. Take the National Council Licensure Examination — Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) once you have graduated from your accredited program and thus have completed the appropriate education requirements. This test is the nationally recognized licensing exam for registered nurses.
- Prerequisites to and fees for the exam may differ between states. Check with the requirements for your state, or for the state you plan on practicing in.
- Note the following requirements in order to sit the licensure examination:
- Application for the examination must include a U.S. social security number.
- Individuals must be accompanied by a recent passport-style photograph.
- Application must identify the school from which the applicant graduated. Transcripts must be forwarded to prove that the individual met all educational requirements.
- Find a job as a nurse. There are more than two million nurses in the United States, making the position the largest in the healthcare field. There are a variety of settings in which a nurse can work, including hospitals, physician’s offices, elderly care homes, prisons, college campuses and schools.
- Newly certified nurses should consider working in a specialty unit, as the patients in these facilities are more homogeneous. Examples of specialty units include orthopedic and pediatrics units.
- Nurses with a bachelor’s degree have better employment prospects than those who do not; they are recognized as having capabilities from their curriculum that prepare them for management, case management and leadership roles.
EditGrowing in the Field
- Decide what specialty interests you. There are a variety of fields for nurses to practice, including pediatrics, adults, OB/GYN, geriatrics, community health, occupational health, rehabilitation, surgery, neonatal, intensive care, and emergency. You will likely have already started thinking about this during your RN educational training. Each RN program gives their nursing students clinical rotations through which they gain experience in these various areas of the hospital and community.
- Nursing students may have a full semester in a particular clinical rotation, such as pediatrics, adult or community health. They will also experience several hours in an intensive care unit, emergency room and neonatal unit. Not all schools will give nurses rotations through a physical rehabilitation unit for patients following strokes or spinal cord injuries. Most schools will expect that nurses get experience with geriatric care while caring for adults.
- Once you know what field of nursing you’d like to work in, you can apply for jobs in that field.
- Stay up-to-date with your practice. Even after completing the required education and certification, nurses should continue to read medical journals, be aware of the policies of the healthcare organization they work for, and take additional courses in medicine. Scientific and medical knowledge and technologies are constantly changing and evolving and so staying up-to-date is key to providing effective healthcare.
- Consider becoming an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN). The term advanced practice registered nurse is an umbrella term used for nurses who have achieved at least a master’s degree in nursing (MSN). The academic program to become an advanced practice nurse is one to two academic years, depending upon the specialty, school, and your previous work experience. There are four main advanced practice settings in which nurses can practice under this APRN umbrella:
- Clinical Nurse Specialist. These nurses typically work in hospitals, clinics and nursing homes. They handle a wide variety of physical and mental health problems and may work within the fields of research, education and administration.
- Nurse Practitioner. These advanced practice nurses may work in clinics, and nursing homes, hospitals or private offices. They see a wide range of primary and preventative health patients. In most states, nurse practitioners can prescribe medication, diagnose illness, and treat minor injuries.
- Certified Nurse Midwife. These nurses provide gynecological and low risk obstetrics care in hospitals, homes and birthing centers.
- Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist. This is the oldest of the advanced practice nursing specialists. Each year certified registered nurse anesthetists provide more than 65% of the anesthetics given to patients in hospitals and outpatient settings.
- Be aware of other career paths. Some nurses move into management positions, which are increasingly requiring a graduate degree in nursing. Other nurses move into the business aspects of healthcare, while still others opt to work outside the healthcare setting directly by becoming instructors in colleges and universities.
- All in all, the nursing field is varied and offers a huge number of opportunities for individuals interested in health and wellness.
- Do your research. Only attend schools with an accredited nursing program in order to obtain your degree and take the required examination for licensing.
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Muscle cramping, especially if it occurs in the thigh muscles, can be an excruciating condition. Uncomfortable and involuntary muscle contractions are not only painful, but can also disrupt daily activities such as sleep. Muscle cramps are usually not a serious medical condition and can generally be treated with home remedies such as stretching, massage, diet, and exercise.
EditStretching Out Thigh Cramps
- Figure out which muscle of your thigh is cramping. Before you can treat a thigh cramp with stretching, it’s important to identify which muscle on your thigh is cramping. The thigh has different muscles that can cramp. Identifying which of the major thigh muscles is cramping will help you stretch most effectively. This should typically be done by a healthcare professional, specifically a doctor, physical therapist or personal trainer.
- The hamstring runs along the back of the thigh and affects hip and knee movement. The top of the hamstring connects under the gluteus maximus behind the hipbone and ends at the knee.
- The quadriceps (often called “the quads”) runs along the front of the thigh and is the major extensor of the knee. The quadriceps is the strongest and leanest muscle of the body.
- Stretch out your hamstring. If you have a cramp on the back of your thigh, stretch out your hamstring. There are different ways to stretch the hamstring that may help alleviate the cramp.
- Using a towel or belt, lay flat on the ground and raise the affected leg. Wrap the belt or towel around the ball of your foot, grab the ends of the towel or belt, and gently pull your leg back. You can use one hand to massage the hamstring as you pull back your leg or wait until you’re finished stretching.
- If you cannot lay down, you can do this same stretch with a belt or towel while seated. Sitting with your legs outstretched and simply bending forward will have the same effect.
- Don’t strain against the tension of a tight, cramped muscle. Instead, pull very gently. Only increase the stretch as the tension in your leg releases.
- Consider walking around in between stretching to help relax your hamstring.
- Stretch out your quads. If you have a cramp on the front of your thigh, stretch out your quad. There is one very effective stretch for the quad that may help alleviate the cramp.
- To stretch a cramping quad, stand up and bend the affected leg up towards your gluteus maximus (butt). If you can, grab your foot and pull it towards your butt for a deeper stretch.
- Make sure to keep your knee in line with your thigh so that you do not injure the muscles and tendons of your knee.
- You can use one hand to massage the hamstring as you pull your leg toward your butt or wait until you’re finished stretching.
- Don’t strain against the tension of a tight, cramped muscle. Instead, pull very gently. Only increase the stretch as the tension in your leg releases.
- Walk around in between stretching to help relax your quad.
- Do some gentle exercises. Gentle exercises can help stretch out a cramping thigh muscle. General movement will naturally stretch the muscles and also help relax you, but you can also consider other exercises such as yoga.
- Only exercise if you are able to and don’t push yourself. This may only be possible after some light stretching.
- Gentle walking is the best exercise to help stretch out your thigh muscles. Take long strides to make sure that you’re using the entire muscle.
- Try doing gentle yoga, which will also help stretch out the muscle. Restorative and yin yoga are specifically practiced to help stretch out and repair muscles.
EditUsing Other Home Remedies
- Massage your thigh or get a professional massage. Massage is one of the most effective ways to get rid of a cramp because it increases circulation to the tissues of the muscle. Combined with stretching, massage can quickly alleviate the pain of a muscle cramp while simultaneously relaxing you.
- Massage your thigh where the muscle is cramping. Press the area gently with your hands and apply more pressure if it doesn’t hurt.
- A foam roller is another effective way to massage your thighs. These circular pieces of foam allow you to roll out the affected muscle by applying pressure.
- You can also get a professional massage to help with thigh cramps. Professional massage is so important as these professionals understand which muscles are affected, but also which muscle are going to have secondary inflammation due to the first injury or cramp. Swedish, neuromuscular, and myofascial release are the most effective types of massage for cramps. Tell the masseuse that you are having problems with cramps so they don’t over-manipulate your muscles.
- Use heat to relax your muscles and take the edge off of the pain. Using heat on a muscle cramp can be an extremely effective way to relax the muscle contraction and alleviate pain. It may also help you relax, which will minimize tight muscles. From heating pads to warm baths, there are many different types of heat treatments to help get rid of thigh cramps.
- Taking a warm shower or bath will relax you and help with the pain of a muscle cramp. The heat from the water will also help promote blood flow to the submerged area.
- Using Epsom salts in a warm bath may also help relieve cramps.
- Fill hot water bottle or get a heating pad and place it on the area of your thigh that it cramping.
- Over the counter heat rubs may also help alleviate muscle cramps and relax the affected area.
- Watch your diet. There are some studies have shown that low levels of nutrients such as potassium and calcium may stimulate muscle cramps. Be sure to eat enough of these nutrients in your diet, which may minimize how often you experience muscle cramps.
- Try bananas and oranges to get potassium.
- Eat brown rice, almonds, and avocados for magnesium.
- Calcium is found in yogurt, milk and other dairy products, as well as in vegetables such as spinach.
- Muscle cramps can be a sign of mineral deficiency. A multi-mineral supplement can be highly beneficial.
- Hydrate. There are no definitive studies connecting dehydration and leg cramps, but there is some evidence that not drinking sufficient water may contribute to cramping thigh muscles. Making sure that you drink enough water over the course of the day may help you avoid leg cramps.
- Drinking water is enough to keep you hydrated. You may prefer something with flavor, so try sports drinks or juices in conjunction with water throughout the day.
- Sleep on your side and don’t use constrictive bedding. Having a tightly made bed and sleeping in certain positions, such as on your stomach, can exacerbate the tendency for muscle cramps. By loosening your covers and sleeping on your side, you may avoid thigh cramps.
- A flat sheet can constrict the ability of your feet and legs to move, so you might want to remove it from your bed.
- Sleep on one of your sides with your knees slightly bent for optimal conditions to help minimize thigh cramps.
- Sleeping in positions where your toes are pointing downward may exacerbate cramps.
- Consider pain relievers or muscle relaxants. If other methods don’t help your thigh cramp or you have pain that won’t go away, try an over the counter pain reliever or prescription muscle relaxant. If you have protracted pain or cramping, though, consult your doctor to rule out an underlying medical condition.
- Take an NSAID (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) to reduce any inflammation that may be in the muscle.
- Talk to your doctor about taking muscle relaxants such as Flexeril (cyclobenzaprine) to help relieve muscle tightness and cramping.
- Do not take quinine. Some alternative medicine sources suggest taking quinine for muscle cramps. This treatment is dangerous and can cause serious health conditions including cardiac arrhythmia, nausea, headaches, and tinnitus, so avoid it if you can.
EditUnderstanding the Causes of Thigh Cramps
- Figure out the cause of thigh cramps. There are many different causes of thigh cramps, including poor blood circulation and muscle fatigue. Figuring out the cause of your cramp may help you treat it quickly.
- Poor blood circulation in the legs, overexertion of muscles, insufficient stretching before or after exercise, muscle fatigue, dehydration, a magnesium or potassium deficiency, or a pinched nerve can cause thigh cramps.
- You can treat most thigh cramps with home remedies. For some people, thigh cramps are due to mineral deficiency. Taking a high-quality mineral supplement could be beneficial.
- Learn what medical conditions can cause thigh cramps. Not all thigh cramps are attributable to simple factors such as over exercise or sitting improperly. Certain medical conditions such as Parkinson’s disease or diabetes can make you more likely to get muscle cramps. If home remedies do not alleviate your thigh cramps, see your doctor to make sure you don’t have an underlying condition.
- Pregnancy can cause thigh cramping.
- Alcoholism may make your thigh muscles spasm.
- Dehydration can cause thigh cramping.
- Parkinson’s disease could also cause thigh cramps.
- Endocrine disorders such as diabetes and hypothyroidism can cause thigh cramps.
- Neuromuscular disorders such as neuropathy might make your thigh muscles cramp.
- Be aware of medications that can cause thigh cramps. Just as certain medical conditions can cause thigh cramps, some medications will make you more prone to these muscle spasms. Knowing what medications can cause cramps can help you or your doctor identify their cause and decide upon the best treatment options.
- Diuretics such as Lasix can make you more prone to thigh cramping.
- Aricept for Alzheimer’s disease may cause thigh cramps.
- Procardia for angina and high blood pressure can cause your thigh muscles to cramp.
- Proventil or Ventolin for asthma can make you more susceptible to thigh cramps.
- Tasmar for Parkinson’s disease could cause thigh cramps.
- Statin medications for cholesterol such as Crestor and Lipitor may cause thigh cramping.
- See a doctor about recurring cramps. Frequent cramping may be a sign of injury, a nutrient deficiency, or dehydration, and your doctor may be able to advise you on remedies.
- Ultimately if your thigh cramps during or after a work out, just stretch that muscle then sit down for a bit and massage it.
- Another way you can get rid of a cramp is to stretch by putting on leg forward on your knee and grabbing your foot pulling it towards the back of your knee.
- Try to stand up and walk slowly.
EditSources and Citations
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Showing other people respect is a critical part of maintaining important personal relationships. Learning to respect people’s efforts, abilities, opinions, and quirks will help keep you happy and successful in your interpersonal life. Respecting yourself can help you move forward with the confidence to make a habit of respect and share it with the people around you.
- Show gratitude. Thank people for their assistance and their support on a regular basis. It’s important to remember all the people who’ve helped you on your journey. Show respect by saying thanks. Even if there’s not an obvious occasion for thanks, showing it regularly will mean a lot to people. Send letters, calls, emails and texts to people you’ve lost touch with. It doesn’t need to take more than a few minutes to express yourself. Remember to thank your:
- Compliment the achievements of others. When others are successful, draw attention to it and celebrate their ability and their achievement. Learn to recognize when other people put forth extra effort and achieve something and praise them for it with sincerity. Take them aside and do it in private, so your compliments will seem genuine.
- Instead of making your first reaction, “Why didn’t that happen to me?” try saying “That’s so great for them!” Keeping a positive attitude will focus attention away from yourself and spread goodwill.
- If someone you respect seems to be having a rough time, or seems to have less to compliment than others, make an extra effort to compliment their effort, their attitude, or other positive attributes.
- Be sincere. While it’s important to thank people and praise others, most people don’t usually respect brown-nosing. Be genuine in your thanks and in showing your respect to other people’s effort. Speak from the heart.
- Even something as simple as “It’s always good to see you” can mean a lot and show lots of respect. It doesn’t need to be complicated.
- Do what you say you’ll do. If you commit to an event or make plans with someone, come through on your end of the deal. Being reliable shows respect for people’s time, and shows that you’re making a special effort to be there for them. Respect other people’s efforts by being on time, being prepared, and being enthusiastic.
- Always come to work, school, or sports practice ready to go. Have your materials in order and complete all the necessary work ahead of time. You’ll show respect for others by not wasting their time.
- It can seem like telling someone “No” will be disrespectful, but you’ve also got to learn to be consistent and realistic with your abilities. It’s hard to respect flakiness.
- Offer your assistance. Go out of your way to help people when it seems like they need it, especially if it isn’t required of you. Volunteer to help your friend move, or stay late to help clean up after school events. Go above and beyond. Even helping your little brother with his homework or helping your dad clean the yard without being asked shows a tremendous amount of respect.
- If it seems like one of your friends or neighbors is feeling down or going through a rough patch, give them the encouragement that they might need. Learning to say, “You’ve got this” can make all the difference in the world for someone who might be struggling.
- Respect the abilities of others. Offering too much help can sometimes be disrespectful. Sometimes, it’s also smart to take a step back and let other people prove themselves and take care of manageable situations or problems on their own.
- Try to recognize when someone is capable of doing something on his or her own and mind your own business to show that person the respect he or she deserves. There’s a big difference between offering to help someone emotionally when he or she is going through a bad break-up and insisting on helping someone make cereal.
- Be a good listener. Practice active listening to show people that you have respect for their opinions and ideas. Watch and be quiet when someone else is talking and spend time thinking actively about what they’re saying.
- Too often, we wait to talk instead of really listening to other people’s ideas. Even if you think you disagree, try to consider the point of view and empathize with it before responding. You’re showing respect to the person by hearing them out and letting them make their own case. You might be surprised.
- Ask lots of questions. To show respect for other peoples’ opinions, question them. Ask open-ended, leading questions that show you’re fully engaged with their ideas and that you’re listening closely. Questioning doesn’t mean that you’re trying to poke holes in their story, or that you don’t believe them. Ask for more when it seems like they might have more to give.
- Instead of asking for more details, ask about how someone feels about a particular topic. If someone’s telling a story, ask “How’d you feel afterwards?” Even if you think you know, let them tell you. Let them make their own case.
- Learn to spread the wealth. If it seems like someone isn’t talking much in a group conversation, ask them a specific question to open the door for communication. You don’t need to draw attention to it by saying something like, “You’re awfully quiet, Steve” just say, “Steve, what did you think of the Super Bowl?”
- Learn about the perspectives of others. Learning to empathize with other people who have very different experiences and perspectives than your own will help you learn to show respect. Be proud of your own opinions and perspectives, but don’t assume everyone feels the same way and avoid putting them in an awkward position. Temper your attitudes and learn where people are coming from before you share your opinions so you can know how to respond.
- While it might seem easy to make a casual comment about how “dumb” football is in a mixed group, you can never know if someone’s recently-deceased grandfather made a living as a ref and loved the sport dearly.
- Pick your battles. Sometimes it shows respect to speak up and voice your opinion, as a way of respecting the intelligence of others. On the other hand, sometimes it’s better to hold back on your opinions and avoid unnecessary arguments that raise tempers. Showing respect
- Try softening your arguments the first time you bring something up. If you think college football is a vicious and disgusting money trench, package that message in a respectful way and voice it, even if others will disagree: “It worries me that so much money is funneled into student athletes at the expense of other more important things. What do you think?” Show respect for their opinion by sharing your own and listening to their argument.
- Perhaps there’s little use in arguing with your great uncle about gay marriage for the umpteenth time. Will it be worth it to bring it up at the dinner table?
- Respectfully disagree. When you have to dissent, do it calmly and by treating your conversation with tact. Respect the perspective of the other person. Don’t insult their opinion or ideas, even if you disagree with them.
- Try to acknowledge common ground before adding your disagreement. Straight with praise and then move to your addition to the conversation. Even something as simple as “That’s a good point. I think I’m seeing it a little differently though…” does the trick in lightening your disagreement.
- Be specific with your critique, avoiding simple or insulting language like “You’re wrong” or “That’s dumb.”
- Take care of yourself. To show respect for yourself, Try to give yourself the same consideration that you give everyone else. Don’t short-change your own ideas and wants at the expense of others. You’re worth it.
- Know when to ask for help. Have respect for your own abilities and skills, but learn to recognize when you’re out of your element. Don’t make it harder on yourself than you need to.
- Treat yourself to well-deserved trips and gifts every now and again. Spend time with your friends and do fun things in your free time.
- Avoid self-destructive behaviors. Drinking to excess on a regular basis or habitually self-deprecating yourself will tear you down in mind and body. Try to work actively to build yourself up and surround yourself with encouraging, enlightening, helpful people.
- Are your friends the kind of people you want to be around? Do they ever criticize you or Try to keep you down? Consider moving on.
- Stay healthy. Make regular visits to the doctor to make sure you’re healthy and fit. Take care of health problems as soon as they arise and don’t put off “bad news.” Avoiding the doctor’s office because you don’t like it isn’t showing respect for yourself and your own well-being.
- Exercise regularly and eat well. Start developing easy routines, even walking a few miles a day or doing some light stretches to get in touch with your body and maintain it. Cut out junk foods and eat a variety of nourishing foods.
- Stand up for yourself. When you want something, go out and get it. Don’t let your fear about stepping on toes get in the way of making things happen that will better your life and achieve something positive for yourself. If you’ve got an opinion, share it. If you want to change jobs, start a band, or take up acting in your 40s, do it. Make a decision and follow through.
- Be ambitious. We all get caught in ruts, many of them of our own making. Develop plans for yourself and specific steps for carrying them out. Plot an upward trajectory for yourself to keep yourself moving forward in life and staying satisfied. Show respect for yourself by being the best version of yourself you can be.
- Consider making a five-year plan to get where you want to go. If you’re a student, what are your college plans? Your after college plans? How might you realistically achieve those goals?
- If you’re in the working world, are you happy in your job? Are you doing what you love? What would it take to get paid for your passion? How long would it take to make it happen? Is it possible? Answer these questions honestly and specifically to develop a plan of success.
- Don’t judge people before you get to know them. Give people the benefit of the doubt, even people of whom you might have a bad first impression. Everyone is fighting a big fight. Assume they have good reasons for being the way they are, doing what they do, and believing what they believe.fgh
- Decide to like people. It’s too easy to come up with reasons to dislike someone, to disrespect someone, or to dismiss them. Instead, look for the spark and the warmth in people. Decide to like them, and it’ll be much easier to show respect.
- Translate a person’s quirks into strengths to help change your attitude. Instead of thinking, “That person is mouthy and egotistical” say “That person really speaks her mind. I like that spark.”
- If you can’t say anything nice…well, you know. Keep a lid on it sometimes. Learn to distinguish between confrontations that need to happen and silly arguments. You’ll keep yourself sane and earn the respect of others by learning to keep quiet. Don’t get dragged into the muck.
- Worry about your own backyard. Don’t get mixed up in other peoples’ business and create unnecessary enemies. Busybodies make quick enemies, usually because there’s not enough going on to keep them occupied. Stay busy and keep your life full of interesting and engaging activities so you don’t have the time and energy to worry about what your neighbors are doing, or how your classmates are doing on their homework.
- Take up new hobbies and spend less time on Facebook. Getting your stalk on is a good time filler, but it can breed resentments and jealousies where none need be.
- Reach out. Giving people you don’t like the cold shoulder may be the easiest way to avoid confrontations, but it can also be cruel and rude, especially in school or at work where everyone likes to feel included. You don’t have to be best friends, but respect people by including them.
- Aim for at least one friendly attempt with people you don’t especially like. “How are you today?” will at least show that you’re trying. You might even change the way you feel.